40 years of silence. The Franco regime
The decades-long burden of the Franco regime is crucial in understanding the past and present of LGBT activism in Spain, due to the continued persistence of its discourse and the strength and effectiveness with which the repression was conducted. This was mainly translated into specific laws such as the 1954 Vagrancy Act or the 1970 Social Danger Act.
The sentences given to homosexuals and transsexuals (the latter were seen as homosexuals or transvestites by a regime that did not distinguish between sexual orientation and gender identity) ranged from jail sentences to concentration camps, along with medical treatments intended to cure what was seen as an illness. Medical theories on how to cure male and female homosexuality could be found in different medical literature and used in psychiatric practices by distinctive figures such as López Ibor or Vallejo-Nájera.
These visions consolidated societal homophobia, present in the media and cultural production of the time. It was also reflected in the hardships that many authors went through. Authors were exiled, such as Miguel de Molina, and silenced, such as Gloria Fuertes.